Category: Tropical papers

When should one treat choroiditis with oral antitubercular therapy?

New consensus on treating presumed tubercular choroiditis with oral antitubercular therapy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32115264/

Fluoresceine and applanation tonometry

Lack of Fluoresceine is a constant feature of working in tropics. I was always wondering, if measurement without staining (which was often a case) makes sense. Actually, it’s not bad!

Vernal-like keratoconjunctivitis in adults with HIV

An Entity, of which I was not aware…

The role of human immunodeficiency virus in the pathogenesis of vernal keratoconjunctivitis-like disease in adults: A demographic and epidemiological study
Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020 Aug;68(8):1551-1554. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1608_19.
Authors
Anine Kritzinger 1 , Anthony G Zaborowski 1 , Wilbert Sibanda 2 , Linda Visser 1
Affiliations
1 Department of Ophthalmology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
2 School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
PMID: 32709773
PMCID: PMC7640813
DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1608_19
Free PMC article
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose was to identify and describe patients with new-onset vernal keratoconjunctivitis-like (VKC-like) disease after puberty.

Methods: The study consisted of two parts: a prospective observational descriptive study of patients with new-onset VKC-like disease, and a case-control study to determine the relationship of a CD4 count with VKC-like disease in adults, in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients were recruited between January 2016 and November 2017 from a Provincial Eye hospital, one of two large referral hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Patients presenting to the eye clinic were screened and diagnosed at the Primary Eye Care Unit. Inclusion criteria: age 15 years and older with signs and symptoms of new-onset VKC-like disease. Exclusion criteria: a history of childhood atopic diseases, atopic keratoconjunctivitis and patients who declined HIV testing. Data collected included HIV status, CD4 count, antinuclear antibodies and total serum immunoglobulin E.

Results: Thirty-three patients were included; females n = 16 and males n = 17. The mean age at presentation was 32.45 ± 9.93 years, 95% CI = 28.94-35.97. Twenty-six patients (78.8%) were HIV positive, 95% CI (62-89). The proportion of HIV positive patients was statistically different from the HIV negative group, Chi-squared = 21.866, P value <0.0001. In the group of HIV positive patients, 72% were classified as immunodeficient according to their CD4 counts. An association was proven between severely immunodeficient patients and the risk of VKC-like disease (Chi-squared = 4.992, P value = 0.0255).

Conclusion: In this cohort, a statistically significant association was found between VKC-like disease in adults and an HIV positive status. This association calls for more research on the subject.

Keywords: Allergy; VKC-like disease in adults; immunocompromised; ocular manifestations of HIV; vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

Retinopathy of Prematurity-related Child Blindness in Africa

Blindness Secondary to Retinopathy of Prematurity in Sub-Saharan Africa
Scott K Herrod et al.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2021 Apr 4;1-8.
doi: 10.1080/09286586.2021.1910315


Authors
Scott K Herrod 1 , Adedayo Adio 2 , Sherwin J Isenberg 3 , Scott R Lambert 4


Affiliations

1
Department of Public Health, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Stein Eye Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA.
4
Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

PMID: 33818253
DOI: 10.1080/09286586.2021.1910315

Purpose: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) has been suggested to be increasing in Africa. However, it was only previously documented as a cause of blindness in 8 of 48 (16.7%) sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of this study was to better understand the magnitude and breadth of blindness from ROP in sub-Saharan Africa.Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 455 ophthalmologists practicing in sub-Saharan Africa; the questionnaire was available in English, French and Portuguese.Results: Responses were received from 132 of 455 (29%) ophthalmologists to whom the survey was sent. Eighty-three respondents were identified as ROP-involved ophthalmologists and were from 26 of 48 (54%) sub-Saharan African countries. Ophthalmologists in 23 countries reported that they examined at least one child who was blind from ROP during the last 5 years. Sixteen of these countries had not previously reported cases of blindness from ROP in the literature. The perceived occurrence of Type 1 or more severe ROP was reported to be increasing by 31 of 77 (40%) ROP-involved ophthalmologists. ROP-involved pediatric ophthalmologists and retinal surgeons reported the number of infants they examined annually with Type 1 or more severe ROP increased from a median of 1 (range: 0-15) to a median of 4 (range: 0-40) from 2015 to 2019. ROP was estimated to be the cause of blindness for 10% of all blind children examined by ROP-involved pediatric ophthalmologists and retinal surgeons during 2019.Conclusions: ROP is becoming a more important and widespread cause of childhood blindness in sub-Saharan Africa.